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Bacteria are single celled microbes. The cell structure is simpler than that of other organisms as there is no nucleus or membrane bound organelles. Instead their control centre containing the genetic information is contained in a single loop of DNA. Some bacteria have an extra circle of genetic material called a plasmid. The plasmid often contains genes that give the bacterium some advantage over other bacteria. For example it may contain a gene that makes the bacterium resistant to a certain antibiotic.
tuberculosis is an infection transmitted by inhalation or ingestion of tubercle bacilli and manifested in fever and small lesions (usually in the lungs but in various other parts of the body in acute stages)
How it spread:
through the air (coughing)
tetanus is an acute and serious infection of the central nervous system caused by bacterial infection of open wounds; spasms of the jaw and laryngeal muscles may occur during the late stages; lockjaw; or a sustained muscular contraction resulting from a rapid series of nerve impulses.
how it enters the body:
through dirty open wounds.
An infected wound is a localized defect or excavation of the skin or underlying soft tissue in which pathogenic organisms have invaded into viable tissue surrounding the wound. Infection of the wound triggers the body’s immune response, causing inflammation and tissue damage, as well as slowing the healing process.
how it spread
contact with dirty things.
HIV is an infection by the human immunodeficiency virus, the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS); it replicates in and kills the helper T cells; human immunodeficiency virus.
How Hiv spread:
HIV is spread mostly through four body fluids:
HIV is NOT spread through:
How is HIV spread through sex?
You can get infected from sexual contact with someone who has HIV. Sexual contact that can transmit HIV includes:
vaginal sex (penis in the vagina)
anal sex (penis in the anus of either a man or a woman)
oral sex (penis in the mouth)
If you have sex, the best thing you can do to prevent HIV infection is practice “safer sex” with any partner who is not proven to be HIV negative (on recent testing). To do so, always use protection–this could include using a condom, dental dam, or another latex barrier, and/or PrEP (pre-exposure prophylaxis, a daily medication taken daily to prevent HIV). It is also important to avoid “rough sex” or other activities that might cause bleeding. If you use lube with a condom, make sure it is water-based, not oil-based. Oil-based lube causes latex condoms to break. See more tips for using condoms; note that, if used correctly and consistently, condoms also protect against other sexually transmitted infections and against pregnancy.
If you have unprotected sex with someone who is infected, it doesn’t mean that you will be infected, too. But there is always a chance, especially if your partner is not on effective HIV medicines. Using condoms and PrEP reduces your risk.
HIV is NOT spread by:
hugging or massage
sex toys you don’t share
daily living with someone who has HIV
For more information, see Sex and Sexuality in the Daily Living section.
How is HIV spread through blood?
You can become infected if you have contact with the blood of someone who has HIV. Blood-borne infection with HIV can occur through:
sharing injection equipment when using drugs
getting tattoos or body piercings with unsterilized needles
accidental needle sticks
splashing blood in your eyes
HIV is NOT spread by blood passed through insect bites.
If you inject drugs, the best thing to do is to use new or sterilized injection equipment every time. You can also take a daily medication called pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to lower your risk of HIV. Learn more about PrEP.
Can HIV pass from mothers to their babies?
Infection can pass from pregnant women living with HIV to their babies in the womb and during birth. Taking HIV medications during pregnancy and childbirth dramatically lowers the risk of a baby becoming infected with HIV.
After birth, transmission can occur through breast milk. The highest risk may be in the early months after birth. It is recommended that new mothers who are living with HIV formula-feed their babies rather than breast-feed.
If you are a woman living with HIV and you intend to become pregnant, or you find out that you have during your pregnancy, talk to your provider immediately about ways to minimize the chances that your baby will become infected, too.
Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that usually cause mild to moderate upper-respiratory tract illnesses, like the common cold. However, three new coronaviruses have emerged from animal reservoirs over the past two decades to cause serious and widespread illness and death.
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus.
Most people infected with the COVID-19 virus will experience mild to moderate respiratory illness and recover without requiring special treatment. Older people and those with underlying medical problems like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, and cancer are more likely to develop serious illness.
The best way to prevent and slow down transmission is to be well informed about the COVID-19 virus, the disease it causes and how it spreads. Protect yourself and others from infection by washing your hands or using an alcohol-based rub frequently and not touching your face.
How the coronavirus spread
The COVID-19 virus spreads primarily through droplets of saliva or discharge from the nose when an infected person coughs or sneezes, so it’s important that you also practice respiratory etiquette (for example, by coughing into a flexed elbow).
Hi friends, I am Jackson Promise, StandCode Administrator.
I would be dishing out a lovely health related articles for our good because an adage said " health is wealth".
Follow our articlse, you will be happy you did.