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Infectious diseases: how they spread

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I am Jackson promise, standcode administrator on health,
I would help you to know more about infectious diseases and how they spread.

What are infectious  diseases?

Infectious diseases are those diseasesses that spread from person to person, a healthy person ought to protect their self’s from those who have been exposed to infectious diseases.

It is important for people to know which sickness is infectious and which are not.

let’s look into infectious diseases like virus and bacteria and how they spread.

Bacteria: ( microbes or germs)

Bacteria are single celled microbes. The cell structure is simpler than that of other organisms as there is no nucleus or membrane bound organelles. Instead their control centre containing the genetic information is contained in a single loop of DNA. Some bacteria have an extra circle of genetic material called a plasmid. The plasmid often contains genes that give the bacterium some advantage over other bacteria. For example it may contain a gene that makes the bacterium resistant to a certain antibiotic.

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Tuberculosis bacteria:

tuberculosis is an  infection transmitted by inhalation or ingestion of tubercle bacilli and manifested in fever and small lesions (usually in the lungs but in various other parts of the body in acute stages)

How it spread:

through the air (coughing)

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Tetanus:

tetanus is an acute and serious infection of the central nervous system caused by bacterial infection of open wounds; spasms of the jaw and laryngeal muscles may occur during the late stages; lockjaw;  or a sustained muscular contraction resulting from a rapid series of nerve impulses.

how it enters the body:

through dirty open wounds.
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diarrhoea:

diarrhoea is a frequent and watery bowel movement; can be a symptom of infection or food poisoning or colitis or a gastrointestinal tumour.

how it spreads:

dirty fingers, water, flies
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Pneumonia (some kinds)

pneumonia a  respiratory disease characterized by inflammation of the lung parenchyma (excluding the bronchi) with congestion caused by viruses or bacteria or irritants.

how it spread:

through the air(coughing)
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Gonorrhoea:

gonorrhoea is  a common venereal disease caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae; symptoms are painful urination and pain around the urethra; gonorrhoea; clap;

how it spread:

through sexual contact
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Syphilis:

syphilis is a common venereal disease caused by the treponema pallidum spirochete; symptoms change through progressive stages; can be congenital (transmitted through the placenta).

how it spread:

Through sexual intercourse or childbirth.

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Earache:

earache is an ache localized in the middle or inner ear.

how it spread:

with cold
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Infected wounds:

An infected wound is a localized defect or excavation of the skin or underlying soft tissue in which pathogenic organisms have invaded into viable tissue surrounding the wound. Infection of the wound triggers the body’s immune response, causing inflammation and tissue damage, as well as slowing the healing process.

how it spread

contact with dirty things.
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Virus:

A virus is the smallest type of parasite to exist, usually ranging from 0.02 to 0.3μm in size, although some viruses can be as large as 1μ.

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Rabies virus:

Rabies is an acute viral disease of the nervous system of warm-blooded animals, usually transmitted by the bite of a rabid animal, rabies is fatal if the virus reaches the brain.

how it spread:

through animal bites
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Warts:

Warts is a firm abnormal elevated blemish on the skin; caused by a virus; verruca.

how it spreads

through touch
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Fungus:

the fungus is an organism of the kingdom Fungi lacking chlorophyll and feeding on organic matter, ranging from unicellular or multicellular organisms to spore-bearing.

how they spread:

by touch or clothing

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HIV

HIV is an infection by the human immunodeficiency virus, the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS); it replicates in and kills the helper T cells; human immunodeficiency virus.

How Hiv spread:

HIV is spread mostly through four body fluids:

semen

vaginal fluid

blood

breast milk

HIV is NOT spread through:

tears

sweat

faeces

urine

How is HIV spread through sex?

 

You can get infected from sexual contact with someone who has HIV. Sexual contact that can transmit HIV includes:

vaginal sex (penis in the vagina)

anal sex (penis in the anus of either a man or a woman)

oral sex (penis in the mouth)

If you have sex, the best thing you can do to prevent HIV infection is practice “safer sex” with any partner who is not proven to be HIV negative (on recent testing). To do so, always use protection–this could include using a condom, dental dam, or another latex barrier, and/or PrEP (pre-exposure prophylaxis, a daily medication taken daily to prevent HIV). It is also important to avoid “rough sex” or other activities that might cause bleeding. If you use lube with a condom, make sure it is water-based, not oil-based. Oil-based lube causes latex condoms to break. See more tips for using condoms; note that, if used correctly and consistently, condoms also protect against other sexually transmitted infections and against pregnancy.

If you have unprotected sex with someone who is infected, it doesn’t mean that you will be infected, too. But there is always a chance, especially if your partner is not on effective HIV medicines. Using condoms and PrEP reduces your risk.

HIV is NOT spread by:

hugging or massage

masturbation

fantasizing

dry kissing

phone sex

cybersex

sex toys you don’t share

daily living with someone who has HIV

For more information, see Sex and Sexuality in the Daily Living section.

How is HIV spread through blood?

You can become infected if you have contact with the blood of someone who has HIV. Blood-borne infection with HIV can occur through:

sharing injection equipment when using drugs

getting tattoos or body piercings with unsterilized needles

accidental needle sticks

blood transfusions

splashing blood in your eyes

HIV is NOT spread by blood passed through insect bites.

If you inject drugs, the best thing to do is to use new or sterilized injection equipment every time. You can also take a daily medication called pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to lower your risk of HIV. Learn more about PrEP.

Can HIV pass from mothers to their babies?

Infection can pass from pregnant women living with HIV to their babies in the womb and during birth. Taking HIV medications during pregnancy and childbirth dramatically lowers the risk of a baby becoming infected with HIV.

After birth, transmission can occur through breast milk. The highest risk may be in the early months after birth. It is recommended that new mothers who are living with HIV formula-feed their babies rather than breast-feed.

If you are a woman living with HIV and you intend to become pregnant, or you find out that you have during your pregnancy, talk to your provider immediately about ways to minimize the chances that your baby will become infected, too.

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Coronavirus:

Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that usually cause mild to moderate upper-respiratory tract illnesses, like the common cold. However, three new coronaviruses have emerged from animal reservoirs over the past two decades to cause serious and widespread illness and death.

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus.

Most people infected with the COVID-19 virus will experience mild to moderate respiratory illness and recover without requiring special treatment.  Older people and those with underlying medical problems like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, and cancer are more likely to develop serious illness.

The best way to prevent and slow down transmission is to be well informed about the COVID-19 virus, the disease it causes and how it spreads. Protect yourself and others from infection by washing your hands or using an alcohol-based rub frequently and not touching your face.

How the coronavirus spread

The COVID-19 virus spreads primarily through droplets of saliva or discharge from the nose when an infected person coughs or sneezes, so it’s important that you also practice respiratory etiquette (for example, by coughing into a flexed elbow).

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Note

Bacteria and viruses and other many organisms that cause infection are so many and can only be seen with the use of a microscope, an instrument that makes tiny things look bigger.

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